You'll find questions about following topics answered in the text below:
NiGHT SKY TOURS How much does a Night Sky Tour cost? You can find that information at the Prices & Reservations Page . There are no coupons or discounts available at this time, but gift certificates certainly are! When does the program begin and how long does it last? Typically it begins about an hour or so after sunset, and lasts about two hours, though it can run slightly longer or shorter depending on the group size, interest and weather. See the table below for approximate sunset times throughout the year. To find sunset times for other dates visit here . Where will we meet? There is no fixed location, but it will be within only a few miles of the town's center (Christmas Circle). This will be determined before you receive your final tour details. Everyone will drive their own vehicles (no 4WD is necessary); precise directions will be provided a week or so in advance. Borrego is a very small town, so all lodging, restaurants, etc. are within only a few miles. Do I need a 4-wheel-drive vehicle? No. All programs, while away from main roads, are held where dirt roads are hard sandy surfaces. Is there much walking involved? No. We park our vehicles and our chairs only a few yards from the telescope, so walking is minimal on a hard sandy surface. What is an evening observing program like? They're all different, of course, but they typically begin with an overview of the stars and constellations visible overhead, followed by a tour of the telescope itself and instruction on its proper use. Then, armed with this knowledge, we will use the telescope to peer deep into our galaxy and far beyond. How is a Night Sky Tour different from other public star parties and events? Public "star parties" offered by amateur astronomy groups are excellent, but they do not offer a truly personalized experience. Here, however, you will have that experience because group sizes are limited. In addition to seeing many more celestial objects, your personal interaction with astronomer Dennis Mammana will help you understand not only what you're seeing, but how it works and why it's important to scientists. It is this context that makes your experience unique. And with a professional astronomer as your guide, you'll surely come away with a totally new perspective on the universe and your place in it. Will I be able to see the Milky Way? That depends on the season and whether or not there's moonlight. The Milky Way Galaxy in which we live forms a circular band around us and, therefore, can be seen only about half of the time. Its brightest part appears during the summer and early autumn; its fainter half appears during the winter and early spring. At the other times of the year we cannot see the band of the Milky Way during early evening hours, but this means that, at those times, we can see other galaxies far beyond our own. Does moonlight affect what we can see? It can. If you want to see the starry heavens at their very best, you should schedule your Sky Tour when the moon does not appear during early evening hours. Note that the Sky Tour Schedule is color-coded to help you determine which are the darkest dates. If you're in town only when the moon is in the sky you will still have a remarkable experience; we will see all we normally see, though with a reduced contrast. If you've got questions about choosing the darkest nights, please e-mail Dennis directly. Be aware that there are only about two or three weeks during each month with moonless conditions, so ideal program dates are limited. What might we be able to see with the telescope? That depends on many factors. The most intriguing examples of various objects in the sky that night will be on the observing list-- including the moon and planets if they are up--but conditions might not permit viewing. Every program can be different, and observing decisions will be made by the astronomer during the program. A typical dark-sky program during each season might include the following: Summer: Double star Albireo, Omega Nebula, Hercules globular star cluster, Wild Duck star cluster Autumn: Double Star Albireo, Double Star Cluster in Perseus, Ring Nebula, Andromeda Galaxy Winter: Pleiades star cluster, Double Star Cluster in Perseus, Orion Nebula, Andromeda Galaxy Spring: Double star Decapoda, Beehive star cluster, Orion Nebula, galaxies M81/M82 SKY TOUR SIZE How many people are there on a Night Sky Tour? Typically the maximum is betweeen 8-12. Occasionally programs have fewer guests. Why do you limit the size of your audience? Unlike most public "star parties," the number of participants here is limited so that you will have the most enjoyable and educational experience possible. In this way you will be encouraged to peer through the telescope, ask questions and open discussions with Dennis. Is there a minimum number required for your tours? Yes... and no. Each public Night Sky Tour requires a minimum of four adults to operate. That doesn't mean you must have four in your party, only that there must be at least four scheduled for the night. If the tour cannot proceed because of low attendance you will be given the option of rescheduling or receiving a refund. Private tours have no minimum limit. What if I don't want to be part of a public tour group? You may request a private session for just yourself or your group. The current Private Group Rate applies for parties of 1 to 8, with an additional fee for each additional guest beyond eight. See below for more details. PRIVATE AND GROUP TOURS I have a group coming to town; do you offer private group sky tours? Absolutely! If the date is outlined in green on the program calendar , and no spaces have yet been reserved, you may schedule it for a Private/Group sky tour. for 1 to 8 guests, with an additional fee or more than 8 guests. See Private Group Rate for more information. Private tours have complete access to the telescope and astronomer, and can be tailored more to your interests. Can I bring my young children for a Private/Group Tour? Yes. Private/Group sky tours do not limit that ages of children. Keep in mind, however, that very young children may not get very much from the program, but just being out under the stars can be quite an experience for them. What if my group has more than eight people? There is an additional fee for more than eight guests, however during this time of COVID restrictions, groups with more than twelve guests cannot be accomodated. See Private Group Rate for more information. My group is holding an event in another town. Can you visit to do a Night Sky Tour there? Of course, as long as it's within reasonable driving distance of Borrego Springs and the calendar date is available. Events held elsewhere are charged at the Group Rate, but do require travel expenses. CHILDREN is there an age limit for children? Yes, children younger than 9 years of age are not admitted to public programs. Private Sky Tours have no age limit. My children are younger than 9, but are really smart. Why can't they come along? It's not a matter of intelligence. First, the eyes of very young children are unable to focus well on faint objects at the telescope, requiring much more time for instruction and help. Second, a dark environment near a delicate and expensive optical instrument is not a safe place for toddlers or young children. Finally, young children are unable to comprehend all we see and talk about, possibly leading them to become bored, frustrated and, sometimes, disruptive to the rest of the group. Can I drop off my children and pick them up at the end of the tour? No, sorry. No unaccompanied minors are permitted, and all must be accompanied by a parent or legal guardian. MAKING RESERVATIONS Must I have a reservation or can I just show up? Because these programs are heavily booked, and meeting times and places can change with the season and weather conditions, reservations and advance payment are required. How do I select a date? Check the Tour Schedule page for scheduled dates, then follow the instructions to learn if your choice(s) are available. How do I make a reservation? Once you've confirmed that space is available on the date(s) you're visiting, you can pay online with credit or debit card, or PayPal. All major credit and debit cards are accepted, and all transactions are secure via the PayPal system. You do not have to have a PayPal acount. What if my preferred date is already booked? If a date is sold out, you may request to be placed on the waiting list for that night. Cancellations are rare, but the do occur from time to time. If space opens you will be contacted right away before the date is opened to the public. I just arrived in town and saw your flyer. Can I make a reservation for tonight? If there remains space, possibly, but the cutoff time for same-day reservations is 10:00 a.m. (Pacific Time). It's always best to make advance reservations if you can. Either way, e-mail ( not telephone or text messaging) is the preferred method of communication. I called the phone number but there was no answer. Now what? All correspondence must be done by e-mail, not by phone or text messaging. Since all responses, confirmations and tour details will be sent via e-mail ALWAYS within 24 hours, please make sure that these are not going to your spam or junk folders. I sent an e-mail, but never received a response. You will ALWAYS receive a reply within 24 hours. If you don't, check your spam and junk folders. If you've not received a reply within 24 hours, please try again. Sometimes e-mail can blocked, though, so you must always include in any correspondence an alternate e-mail address . I made my reservation; now what? Shortly after making your reservation payment you will receive a receipt from PayPal. You will then receive an e-mail confirmation from Dennis giving you preliminary details and requesting important information. Once that information is received―and a few days before your Night Sky Tour―you will receive another e-mail detailing the exact time and place we will meet, and offering more detail about the evening's adventure. You're always welcome to email Dennis at any time if you've got questions that are not answered in the emails or this FAQ. LODGING & ACTIVITIES IN BORREGO SPRINGS I've never been to Borrego Springs before. Can you recommend a good place to stay? A variety of resorts, motels and camping spots exist around the village of Borrego and in the State Park. You can find a list of lodging (as well as other activities , restaurants and more at the Borrego Springs Chamber of Commerce & Visitors’ Bureau . How far are hotels from where we'll be meeting? Borrego is a very small town, and all hotels and resorts are within only a few miles of our meeting place and observing site. I don't want to stay overnight in Borrego; is that an option? Of course, but keep in mind how far Borrego is from just about everywhere. From San Diego it's a 2+ hour drive; from the LA area it can be 4+ hours. Your Night Sky Tour can end quite late, and the roads out of town are winding, dark and potentially dangerous at night. You would be much wiser to spend the night in town, and enjoy the views back the next day. In fact, you might even prefer to stay a few days to explore the ruggedly beautiful Anza-Borrego Desert State Park. Is there anything else to do in Borrego? Absolutely! Please check out the Borrego Springs Chamber of Commerce & Visitors’ Bureau to see what kinds of museums, lectures, desert excursions and more for you to enjoy. But be ready for beauty and solitude... and no traffic! TOUR LOGISTICS When are Borrego Night Sky Tours offered? Sky Tours are offered several times a week, except when the moon is bright or when Dennis is not available. Check out the current tour schedule for dates and send an e-mail to confirm that space is open; if there is, you must pay in advance to hold your spaces. What time does the program begin and how long does it last? Night Sky Tours typically begin 30-60 minutes after sunset―depending on time of year and what’s in the sky―and generally last about 2+ hours. Please be aware that PROGRAMS BEGIN ON TIME, so plan to arrive early or youmay miss the all-important beginning; there can be no refunds for late arrivals. On rare occasions, conditions may dictate a last-minute change of start time, and these changes would be communicated that day via text message to the cell phone number you provided. Please check your text messages from time to time that afternoon to make sure you don't miss out. What if I'm late? You may miss the tour. We begin PROMPTLY at the scheduled time, and once the program has begun you will be unable to reach anyone by phone, text message or e-mail. Please keep in mind that there are no refunds if you miss the program. Please plan your travel and dinner accordingly and arrive early! Where will we meet? There is no fixed location, but all are within only a few miles of the town's center. It will be determined before you receive your final tour details. Conditions may require a last-minute change, and those changes would be communicated via text message that day to the cell phone number you provided. Please check your text messages from time to time that afternoon to make sure you don't miss out. How should I plan to dress for the evening? Nights can become quite cool (or downright cold!) after sundown in the desert, except during mid-summer. Always be sure to dress for the season, but you will be advised before your adventure what weather we can expect. Good sturdy shoes are always a good idea for the desert at night, however. Do I need a 4-wheel-drive vehicle to participate? No 4WD is necessary. The observing locations are all located within a few miles of the town's center, and only a short drive on a dirt road may be necessary. I'd prefer not to drive at night in the desert; can I ride with you? No, sorry. We're not licensed to carry passengers and, besides, the telescope gear takes up the entire vehicle! THINGS TO BRING ALONG... OR TO LEAVE AT HOME What do I need to bring? You should bring water, solid shoes, seasonal clothing, a flashlight, binoculars and a sense of adventure for seeing sights and phenomena far beyond our daily workaday world. And during COVID restrictions all in your party must bring suitable face coverings. If you wish to sit during the 2-hour program you should bring folding chairs. If you’re traveling by plane and cannot bring chairs, please let Dennis know in advance and he will have some available. Please do NOT bring a towel or blanket to sit on the ground; not only can it pick up irritating cactus needles, ants, scorpions, snakes and other small critters, it is a safety hazard for people walking around in the dark gazing skyward. CAMERAS & OTHER TELESCOPES Can I take photos through the telescope? The telescope is not designed for long-exposure photography; the program is strictly visual. However, if moon is visible that night you can try holding a camera or phone up to the eyepiece and snapping the shutter, but this can be a bit challenging so we'd wait until the end of the evening to try this if you wish. Can I bring a camera and tripod to shoot the sky directly? Certainly, but you’ll be asked to set it up away from the group for safety. And, since light is not allowed at the observing site, you’ll also need to disable your LCD screen, strobe and white flashlight. Keep in mind that, if you spend time with your camera, you'll miss much of the Sky Tour. You may, however, stay after the program to shoot the sky on your own. May I bring my own telescope? This is discouraged since participants would be distracted from the program for which they've paid. You may, however, stay after the program to set up and use your scope on your own . SEEING THE MILKY WAY Will I see the Milky Way during our Night Sky Tour? It's possible. The Milky Way appears during at various times during the year, and only on moonless nights (green dates on the program schedule). We can see it during the winter months (December, January and February), though this portion of the Milky Way is rather faint. The time to see it at its best is during the summer months (July, August and early September) when it appears to arc high overhead and streams very far to the south. During October and November it's still visible, but its southernmost section is beginning to vanish in the glow of lights from San Diego. Can I see all the spectacular colors I see in photographs? Unfortunately not. First of all, cameras record colors and details that the human eye cannot see. Secondly, many of those highly- saturated photos you may have seen online are over-processed by novices and give the Milky Way a ghastly and terribly unrealistic look. The Milky Way appears as a quiet and subtle "cloud" that arcs across the sky and, to the eye, appears as a rather colorless and mottled band of light. RESTRICTIONS May I bring my pet? No, sorry. Pets can attract hungry coyotes, and they can be vulnerable to snake bites and being stepped on in the dark, and some can become tempermental around strangers. In addition, some of our guests may have allergies to pet hair. Please arrange to leave your precious fur babies elsewhere during the few hours of our program. May I smoke on the tour? Please don't. Other guests (including your astronomer) may be negatively affected by smoke. Additionally, the desert is very dry and fire of any kind can be a hazard. If you choose to do so, however, you will be asked to move to area far downwind from our group, and you will miss part of the program. AT THE OBSERVING SITE Will we be doing much walking? Not at all; we will park our vehicles at the observing site and walk only a few feet on flat sandy terrain to the telescope. That's it! Are there rest room facilities at our observing site? Since we'll be out in the desert, there are no restrooms there (OK, there are thousands of them!). Please be prepared for that. What about rattlesnakes and scorpions? Though it may appear barren and lifeless, the desert is alive with critters such as ants, scorpions, field mice, rattlesnakes, lizards, coyotes and more—some seasons more than others—but if you're careful you won't be bothered by any of them. It's always a good idea to wear solid shoes, use a flashlight when walking in the desert and, if you wish to sit, do so off of the ground on a chair, cooler, etc. In general, always be aware of your environment while in the desert. CANCELLATIONS Do I get a refund if I choose to cancel? Of course, but a refund can be issued ONLY if your cancellation is received by 5 p.m. Pacific Time three days before your scheduled sky tour date. (For example, a Saturday sky tour must be cancelled by 5 p.m. PT on Wednesday; a Friday sky tour cancellation must be received by 5 p.m. PT on Tuesday, and so on). Because these programs can be in high demand, cancellations received after that date and time cannot be honored. Sorry. Can I reschedule instead of canceling? Absolutely but, like a refund, your request must be received by 5 p.m. Pacific Time three days before your scheduled sky tour date. If COVID-19 restrictions force a cancellation will I get a refund? If the program is forced to cancel for any reason you may choose to receive a refund or to reschedule. WEATHER What are the desert temperatures like when I’m planning to visit? Desert temperatures vary considerably througout the year and throughout the day/night cycle. Temperatures during the early evening programs can range from 100F+ (38+C) in the summer, to as low as 35F (2C) in the winter, so you should always be prepared. Wind can also be quite strong at times, but if it’s too severe the program will be canceled. What is the best time of year for stargazing? There’s just no “best time”. The sky during every season is always exciting, but weather can be good or bad, just like anywhere else. On the average, Borrego does tend to see more clouds (and occasionally some rain) during the winter and late summer, months, but this is quite variable from year to year. Be aware that there is no way to know what any particular night will be like until that night. I’ve checked the long range weather forecast and it doesn’t look good. Should I cancel my visit? That’s up to you. Just remember the 3-day cancellation policy. However, one should never trust a desert forecast more than a few minutes in advance. Conditions can change quickly and unexpectedly, especially after dark. There are never any guarantees when it comes to weather, and occasionally observing conditions turn out to be quite different than expected. What kind of weather can force a cancellation? Keep in mind that a weather forecast and actual observing conditions are two completely different things. Cloud cover is only one factor that can affect observations; strong winds, blowing sand, high humidity and air turbulence (what astronomers call "seeing") can all influence observing conditions, and any one of them can cause cancellation of the night's program. Unfortunately, some of these do not show up on weather forecasts and cannot often be known in advance, and actual desert sky conditions can sometimes deviate quite far from the forecasts. What happens if the conditions are bad the day of my Sky Tour? Desert weather can change quickly and dramatically, but only rarely does it become so bad that we cannot observe. Dennis will monitor conditions that day, and if he determines that weather will force cancellation of the program he will send a text message later in the day to the cell phone number you provided (as well as a detailed e-mail), and you may then reschedule or receive a full refund. I'll be in town for a few days... if weather cancels the program can we do it the next night? Sometimes the following night can be used as a backup for those staying in town over a few nights. If, on the other hand, you're leaving town, you can look over the program calendar to select another date that would be convenient for you or choose to receive a refund.. Suppose I'm just driving into Borrego for the Night Sky Tour? Never a good idea. If you choose to make the round-trip drive without staying in town (at least for one night) you risk a long drive for nothing if a late weather cancellation becomes necessary. Borrego is at least two hours drive from most places, and this is never recommended , especially during the frequently-unstable desert weather patterns of winter and late summer. Please don't ask Dennis to make a weather decision before you leave home so you can avoid the drive; it's often impossible to judge a night's observing conditions in advance. There are plenty of other things to do in town that would make a longer stay more sensible. AFTER THE SKY TOUR Hey, this Sky Tour was great! How can I let others know about my experience? You can write a review of the program—and read others'—at TripAdvisor and the Borrego Night Sky Tours Facebook Page . Suppose I want to come back... will there be different things to see? Absolutely! The evening sky changes gradually throughout the year, and there are different celestial sights available during each season. For example, if you want to see the Milky Way in all its glory, the summer months are best. Can I book Dennis for an upcoming celestial event? Occasionally that might be possible, but his schedule is often booked more than a year ahead, and these events are frequently planned with local resorts or tour companies. He is available for other special events and presentations, however. Just email Dennis directly. How can I keep up with other astronomical programs and sky events? There are several ways to stay informed. One is to check out Dennis' website . You may subscribe to his free e-mail newsletter , and you'll find even more timely information—plus the ability to interact with him and other sky watchers—on Facebook and Twitter . And, of course, don't forget his weekly syndicated column Stargazers , to which you may subscribe free via e-mail so you'll never miss another celestial event again! COVID-19 ISSUES Are programs operating during this time? Like everywhere else, Borrego is currently under state and county restrictions, but we are operating safely. What kind of safety considerations are there in the Night Sky Tours? We will adhere to all safety recommendations for the foreseeable future, including having smaller groups (which means more telescope time per person!), maintaining social distancing when possible, and wearing face coverings when social distancing is not possible. Will these restrictions limit what I can experience? Not significantly. We still view and discuss stars and star groupings, peer through the telescope, and answer all questions about the cosmos just as always except with face coverings and social distancing. If COVID-19 restrictions force a cancellation will I get a refund? If the program is forced to cancel for any reason you may choose to receive a refund or to reschedule.
© Dennis L. Mammana.  All rights reserved.
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SUNSET TIMES (Program begins appoximately one hour after sunset)